Antibacterial Photodynamic Therapy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Download data

Polycationic photosensitizer conjugate between poly-L-lysine and chlorin(e6)polycationic photosensitizer penetreted with 660 nm laser light rapidly killed Escherichia coli infecting excisional wounds in miceRapid control of wound infections by targeted photodynamic therapy monitored by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The worldwide rise in antibiotic resistance necessitates the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.11837327
Poly-L-lysine chlorin e6 conjugate or free chlorin e6 with red light from a diode laseractivity against Staphylococcus aureusTargeted photodynamic therapy of established soft-tissue infections in mice. The worldwide rise in antibiotic resistance necessitates the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.15122362
Photosensitizers PS (a polylysine-chlorin(e6) conjugate, pL-c(e6), and methylene blue [MB]) and an anionic molecule, free c(e6), and subsequent exposure to 665-nm light at 0 to 40 J/cm(2)These data suggest that slime production and stationary phase can be obstacles against PDI for gram-positive bacteria but that these obstacles can be overcome by using cationic PS.15155218
UVMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was found to be sensitive to both germicidal (ultraviolet C) and solar (ultraviolet A and B) ultraviolet radiation (ultraviolet C substantially more lethal).The experiments reveal that medium composition (sodium chloride concentration) exerts a substantial effect on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ultraviolet resistance and that this species lacks photoreactivation capacity.15695834
XF porphyrin derivativesPhototoxicity against methicillin-resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain, Escherichia coli strainNo harm against eukaryotic cellsPhotodynamic effects of novel XF porphyrin derivatives on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The worldwide rise in the rates of antibiotic resistance of bacteria underlines the need for alternative antibacterial agents.15793136
5-[4-(1-dodecanoylpyridinium)]-10,15,20-triphenyl-porphyrinEfficient photoinactivation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a novel porphyrin incorporated into a poly-cationic liposome. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is emerging as a promising therapeutic modality for bacterial infections.17387034
Photodynamic effect of protoporphyrin diarginate (PPArg2)Incubation with 10 microM followed by illumination yielded a 3.6 log(10)-unit reduction in the viable count for Staphylococcus aureus.At the same experimental conditions, only 22.5% of the fibroblasts were photoinactivated.Photodynamic effect of protoporphyrin diarginate (PPArg2) on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and human dermal fibroblasts. The worldwide rise in the antibiotic resistance of bacteria forces the development of alternative antimicrobial treatments.18217106
Porphyrin-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapyA Staphylococcus aureus suspension was exposed to a light emitting diode (LED) emitting at 628 nm, 14.6 mW/cm(2), and energy density of 20 J/cm(2), 40 J/cm(2), or 60 J/cm(2) in the presence of different porphyrin concentrations (Photogem). Three drug concentrations were employed: 12 microl/ml, 25 microl/ml, and 50 microl/ml.Data suggest that PDT has the potential to eliminate Staphylococcus aureus in suspensionSusceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to porphyrin-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy: an in vitro study.19585079
RLP068/Cl is a novel Zn(II) phthalocyanine proposed as a photosensitizerInhibition concentration S. aureus strain 26A7 : 16ng/nl, and for S. aureus strain 28C65: 8 ng/ml, P. aeruginosa: 1.65 to 26.4 ?g/mlRLP068/Cl is a novel Zn(II) phthalocyanine proposed as a photosensitizer suitable for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) for localized infections.20008782
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using 5,10,15-tris(1-Methylpyridinium-4-yl)-20-(pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin triiodide (Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF) as photosensitizer and irradiated with white light (40 W m(-2)) for 270 minutes.Tested against Vibrio fischeri and recombinant Escherichia coliaPDT using Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF represents a promising approach to efficiently destroy bacteria since after a single treatment these microorganisms do not recover their viability and after ten generations of partially photosensitized cells neither of the bacteria develop resistance to the photodynamic process20161973
Chemiluminescent reaction of luminol to excite the photosensitizer - chemiluminescent photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (CPAT)Effect of free and liposome-encapsulated PS (methylene blue or toluidine blue) on bacteria under excitation by either white external light or chemiluminescence emitted by free or liposome-enclosed luminol.One alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy is photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) which is based on the use of a photosensitizer (PS), activated by illumination with visible light.20880227
Methylene blue and a low power laserThe mean reduction in bacterial counts of the strains submitted to PDT ranged from 4.89 to 6.83 CFU (log10)/mLEffect of photodynamic therapy on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp.21359491
Rose Bengal and photosensitizing for 30 min using a halogen lamp.Further, mesocosm experiments with V. harveyi and Artemia nauplii demonstrated that in 30 min, the aPDT could kill 78.9% and 91.2% of heterotrophic bacterial and Vibrio population respectively.Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture. We propose antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems.21951316
Porphyrin-cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-Por (1))Excellent efficacy toward the photodynamic inactivation of Acinetobacter baumannii, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with the best results achieving 5-6 log units reduction in colony forming units (CFUs) upon illumination with visible light (400-700 nm; 118 J cm(-2))Porphyrin-cellulose nanocrystals: a photobactericidal material that exhibits broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. T22360680
Cationic PS meso-tetra-4-N-methyl pyridyl porphineAnalyses revealed that PDT treatments delayed the growth and considerably reduced the glucose consumption capacity of S. aureus cells.Molecular targets of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy identified by a proteomic approach.23000218
Methylene blue (MB) injection followed by photodynamic therapyIn the study of antimicrobial PDT, we verified that methylene blue (MB) injected into the insect followed by whole body illumination prolonged the caterpillar survival (P = 0.0192). Interestingly, combination therapy of larvae infected with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with antimicrobial PDT followed by vancomycin, significantly prolonged the survival of the caterpillars when compared to either antimicrobial PDT (P = 0.0095) or vancomycin treatment alone (P = 0.0025), suggesting that the aPDT made the vancomycin resistant E. faecium strain more susceptible to vancomycin action.Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an alternative therapeutic platform that is currently under investigation for the control and treatment of infections.23457486
Methylene blue derivativesIn suspensions with both, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, some derivatives were highly active upon illumination to inactivate S. aureus and E. coli up to 7 log10 steps (99.99999%)?No inherent toxicities in the nonirradiated stateHydrogen bond acceptors and additional cationic charges in methylene blue derivatives: photophysics and antimicrobial efficiency. Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PIB) by efficient singlet oxygen photosensitizers might be a beneficial alternative to antibiotics in the struggle against multiresistant bacteria.23509728
antimicrobial PDT (aPDT): photosensitizers TMPyP and ZnTPPS4We tested these two porphyrins on two cell lines and two bacterial strains to compare effectiveness. In addition, we applied photosensitizers bound in the complex created with hp-?-cyclodextrin. The light-emitting diodes were used at the doses 0, 1, 5, 10 J/cm(2) for cells and 0, 150 J/cm(2) for bacteria. Tested concentrations for cells and microbes were from 0.5 to 50 ?M and from 0.78 to 100 ?M, respectively.TMPyP is a promising compound both in aPDT and in PDT, particularly in contrast to ZnTPPS4, which was efficient only in PDT. Furthermore, the eradication of gram-positive bacteria is possible only with higher concentrations of ZnTPPS4.In this work, the photosensitizers TMPyP and ZnTPPS4 are investigated for photodynamic and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.23899404
Ruthenium(II) based photosensitising material (PSM) covalently bound to micrometric glass beadsActivity against Helicobacter pylori, a 99.99999% decrease was detected in the number of coloniesHelicobacter pylori inactivation and virulence gene damage using a supported sensitiser for photodynamic therapy.23988411
Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy with ?-D-galactopyranosyl zinc phthalocyaninesActivity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusSusceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy with ?-D-galactopyranosyl zinc phthalocyanines: in vitro study. The incidence of methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing globally, making urgent the discovery of novel alternative therapies for infections.24249355
Ru(II)-based photosensitizersBacterial samples were dosed with a range of photosensitizer concentrations (0.3-12 micro M) and exposed to 530 nm light (90J cm(-2)) in normoxic conditions (ambient atmosphere) and in hypoxic conditions (0.5% O2The intrinsic positive charge of the Ru(II) metal combined with the oxygen independent activity demonstrated by this class of photosensitizers presents a new strategy for eradicating both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria regardless of oxygenation level.24284119
Photosensitizer safranine O with that of chlorhexidine (0.2% CHX)In this context, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) may play a crucial part in the future.24473989
HypericinPreincubation with HYP (5 min) plus light exposure (10 min) showed bactericidal effect against planktonic methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus.Antimicrobial photodynamic activity of hypericin against methicillin-susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.25812458
PDT using curcumin (C) as a photosensitizing agent irradiated with an LED (L) in the blue wavelength as a light sourceSuspensions of both strains of Streptococcus mutans , were divided into 4 groups as follows: absence of C and L (control group: C-L-), with C and without L (C group: C+L-), absence of C with L (L group: C-L+) and presence of C and L (PDT group: C+L+). Three different concentrations of curcumin (0.75 mg/ml, 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml) and three light fluences of studied light source (24, 48 and 72 J cm(-2)) were tested. Aliquots of each studied group was plated in BHI agar and submitted to colony forming units counting (CFU/ml) and the data transformed into logarithmical scale.A high photoinactivation rate of more than 70% was verified to standard S. mutans strain submitted to PDT whereas the clinical isolate showed a lower sensitivity to all the associations of curcumin and LED. A slight bacterial reduction was verified to C+L- and C-L+, demonstrating no toxic effects to the isolated application of light and photosensitizer to both S. mutans strains testedPhotodynamic therapy using a combination of curcumin and blue LED presented a substantial antimicrobial effect on S. mutans standard strain in a planktonic suspension model with a less pronounced effect on its clinical isolate counterparts due to resistance to this alternative approach.25876942
In vitro PDT (photodynamic therapy) of UVA and TC (Tetracycline) as a PS (photosensitizer) before in vivo study. chitosan as booster.At 1mg/mL of TC, chitosan treatment combined with PDT, increased the bactericidal effect by >10,000-fold of the effect of PDT alone.The present study showed that PDT using a combination of TC and chitosan is an effective method for killing C. difficile.26386640
Lysine-porphyrin conjugate (4i)potent photosensitive antibacterial effect on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Mechanism and In Vivo Evaluation: Photodynamic Antibacterial Chemotherapy of Lysine-Porphyrin Conjugate.26973620
Photosensitizer 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin tetra-iodide (Tetra-Py(+)-Me)Activity against Staphylococcus aureusPDI, contrarily to traditional antibiotics, inhibited the expression of virulence factors, efficiently inactivating either highly virulent strains and low virulent S. aureus strains, inactivating also antibiotic susceptible and resistant strains, without development of photoresistance after at least 10 consecutive cycles of treatment, and so this therapy may become a strong promising alternative to antibiotics to control pathogenic microorganisms.27014198
Benzylidene cyclopentanone based PSs modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG), carboxylate anionic or pyridyl cationic agentsIn vitro and in vivo activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Water-soluble benzylidene cyclopentanone based photosensitizers for in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.27323899
Photodynamic Therapy (photosensitizer, Rhodamine 6G (R6G) in stealth liposomes)The higher photoefficacies and production of more reactive oxygen speciesThe antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is an alternative method for killing bacterial cells in view of the rising problem of antibiotic resistance microorganisms.27371913
DSPE-PEG-Pheo A (DPP) transfersomeFor enhanced selectivity and skin penetration efficiency, DPP transfersomes are prepared from 1,2?distearoyl?sn?glycero?3?phosphoethanolamine?N?[amino(polyethylene glycol)?2000], pheophorbide A (Pheo A), cholesterol, and Tween?80. Incorporation of Tween?80 as an edge activator increases the deformability of DPP transfersomes, enhancing skin penetration efficiency to four times that of free Pheo A.These results demonstrate that DPP transfersome-mediated photodynamic therapy can be used as an alternative method to treat bacterial skin infections. ? 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.27863184
Photosensitizer ZnPc(TAP)4n+, n = 0, 4, 8, 12IC50 value of 59 nM at a light dosage of 5? J/cm2 toward E. coli.negligible toxicity against human erythocytesZnPc(TAP)4n+ are highly potent, rapid-acting and non-toxic photosensitizers capable of inactivating bacteria.28251266
cationic amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4I with four lysine groupsAt 3.9 ?M and 7.8 ?M, PACT induced 6 log units of inactivation of sensitive and multidrug resistant strains.These results imply that 4I-mediated PACT (Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy) therapy is an effective and safe alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy and has clinical potential for superficial drug-resistant bacterial infections. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176529 PMCID: PMC542662928493985
Antimicrobial blue light (aBL)Much less genotoxic to host cells than ultraviolet-C (UVC) irradiation, which directly causes DNA damage in host cellsUnlike another light-based antimicrobial approach, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), aBL therapy does not require the involvement of an exogenous photosensitizer.28518072
Photosensitizing agents rose bengal (RB) or methylene blue (MB), alone or combined with the antibiotics mupirocin (MU) or linezolid (LN).By contrast, RB-aPDT and MB-aPDT effectively inactivated S. aureus, as evidenced by a 6 log10 reduction in bacterial growthAntimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) could constitute an alternative therapy.28626456
Boronic Acid Functionalized PhotosensitizersTreating planktonic cultures and biofilms of Gram-negative E. coliThis study investigated a new and innovative strategy for targeting polysaccharides found on the bacterial cell envelope and the biofilm matrix using the boronic acid functionalized and highly effective photosensitizer (PS) silicon(IV) phthalocyanine.28675648
Methylene blue (MB)-mediated Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT)MB (0.01%) was applied on the lesions and after 5min they were irradiated using a red laser (wavelength=660nm), fluence of 280J/cm2, 8J and 80s per point, 100mW, spot size 0.028cm2 and fluence rate of 3.5W/cm2These results show that APDT can be used to treat infectious stomatitis in snakes.29037910
Photosensitizer rose bengal (RB), combined or uncombined with gentamicin (GN)Different concentrations of RB (ranging from 0.03 to 64 micro g/ml) were added to S. aureus in water suspensions or forming biofilms in the absence or presence of GN (1-40 micro g/ml) and the samples were irradiated (18 or 37 J/cm2).. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) could constitute an alternative therapy to antibiotics especially against superficial infections caused by bacteria involved in multidrug resistance processes.29196246
Methylene blueThe CFU/ml count demonstrated significant reduction (p less than or equal to 0.01) at the average 5.0 logs comparing with control group for the two species in all the tested concentrations.Photodynamic therapy emerges as an alternative in microbial inactivation, due to its selectivity and to decreasing or dismissing antibiotic use.29454901
The photosensitizer (PS) curcumin and the light source LED at 450nm)The highest microbial inactivation was observed with 70% biofilm reduction in conditions 1.25 mg/mL curcumin, 2 h of PS incubation and 50 J/cm2.Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative for microbial inactivation noninvasive without stimule of microbial resistance.29788897