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Antibacterial Phytochemicals and Natural Products

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ENTITY POTENCY SAFETY INFORMATION EVIDENCE PMID
Totarol: diterpenoids isolated from the bark of Podocarpus nagi (Podocarpaceae)The synergistic activity of anacardic acid caused the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of totarol to be lowered from 1.56 to 0.2 micrograms/ml.Totarol [1], the most abundant compound among the six, exhibited potent bactericidal activity only against Gram-positive bacteria, among which Propionibacterium acnes was the most sensitive bacterium.1453180
Phytoalexin isolate 5,7,2',6'-tetrahydroxy-6-isoprenyl-8-lavandulyl-4'-methox yflavanone (exiguaflavanone D)and 5, 2',6'-trihydroxy-8-lavandulyl-7-methoxy-flavanone (exiguaflavanone B)Exiguaflavanone D inhibited MRSA 1.56-6.25 micro g/ml, and Exiguaflavanone B inhibited at 50 micro g/ml concentrationFlavanones with potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. With the therapeutic concept of using the defensive ability of plants against microbial infections, phytoalexin, an antimicrobial phytochemical was studied for its ability to inhibit the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).7897594
A sesquiterpene lactone, identified as [3aR-(3a alpha, 7 beta,8a beta)]-3,3a,4,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7- methyl-3-methylene-6-(3-oxo-1-butenyl)-2H-cyclohepta[b]furan-2-one, or xanthatin, isolated from leaves of an annual herb, Xanthium sibiricum Patr er WiddActive against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusBy monitoring antibacterial activity against MRSA strains, it was shown that a sesquiterpene lactone, identified as [3aR-(3a alpha, 7 beta,8a beta)]-3,3a,4,7,8,8a-hexahydro-7- methyl-3-methylene-6-(3-oxo-1-butenyl)-2H-cyclohepta[b]furan-2-one, or xanthatin, isolated from leaves of the herb, had outstandingly potent activity against S. aureus species, including MRSA; its activity against MRSA and MSSA strains was similar.9364417
Natural abietanes: 6,7-dehydroferruginol methyl ether (3), ferruginol (5), 11-hydroxy-12-oxo-7,9(11) ,13-abietatriene (7), royleanone (9), demethyl cryptojaponol (12), salvinolone (14), sugiol methyl ether (16), sugiol (17), 5,6-dehydrosugiol methyl ether (19), 5,6-dehydrosugiol (20), 6beta-hydroxyferruginol (23), and taxodione (25)Phenols (12-hydroxyabieta-8,11,13-trien-6-one 22 and 23), catechols (12 and 14) and taxodione 25 has MIC 4-10 microg/mL against MRSA and 4-16 microg/mL of MIC against VRE, Quinone methide had MIC 0.5-1 microg/mL of against both MRSA and VRE.Synthesis of variously oxidized abietane diterpenes and their antibacterial activities against MRSA and VRE.11249127
2',4'-dihydroxy-8-gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl-2",2"-dimethylpyrano[5",6":6,7]isofla vanone (bidwillon B)(MICs) of 3.13-6.25mg/l against MRSA strainsBidwillon B may prove to be a potent phytotherapeutic and/or combination agent with mupirocin in the elimination of nasal and skin carriage of MRSA.15325427
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) capsulesTwelve hours after consumption of cranberry or placebo hard capsules, the first urine of the morning was collected. Different Escherichia coli strains were cultured in the urine samples. Urinary antibacterial adhesion activity was measured in vitro using the human T24 epithelial cell-line, and in vivo using the Caenorhabditis elegans killing model. With the in-vitro model, 108 mg of cranberry induced a significant reduction in bacterial adherence to T24 cells as compared with placebo (p <0.001).Overall, these in-vivo and in-vitro studies suggested that consumption of cranberry juice represents an interesting new strategy to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection.18190583
Tea tree oil and terpinen-4-olAntimicrobial activity of terpinen-4-ol and tea tree oil (TTO) against clinical skin isolates of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)No cytotoxicity against human fibroblastsCONCLUSIONS: Terpinen-4-ol is a more potent antibacterial agent against MRSA and CoNS isolates than TTO with neither agent exhibiting toxicity to fibroblast cells at the concentrations tested.18298453
Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa (cannabidiol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol, Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and cannabinol)Activity against a variety of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of current clinical relevance.Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study18681481
Aqueous and ethanol extracts of roselle calyx and protocatechuic acidMIC 112-144 microg/mL(aqueous), 72-96 microg/mL(ethanol), and 24-44 microg/mL (protocatechuic acid) against food spoilage bacteria Salmonella typhimurium DT104, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereusThese data suggest that roselle calyx ethanol extract and protocatechuic acid might be potent agents as food additives to prevent contamination from these bacteria.19099360
Quercus infectoria OlivierEthanol extract, an ethyl acetate fraction I, gallic acid and tannic acid could inhibit the growth of clinically isolated MRSA strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values between 63 and 250 microg ml(-1). Detailed studies on Quercus infectoria Olivier (nutgalls) as an alternative treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.19120622
Vaccinium berriesAntiadhesion therapy is a promising approach to the fight against pathogens. The results suggest Vaccinium berries as possible sources of antiadhesives against bacterial infections.19610031
Tualang honeyPotential alternative therapeutic agent against certain microorganisms, particularly A. baumannii and S. maltophilia.This result suggests that tualang honey could potentially be used as an alternative therapeutic agent against certain microorganisms, particularly A. baumannii and S. maltophilia.19754926
Diterpenes (Abietane 5 and its 6,12-dibenzoyl, 12-methoxybenzoyl, 12-chlorobenzoyl, and 12-nitrobenzoyl esters)Potent activities against the MDR strain with MIC values between 3.12 and 0.39 microg/ml.Antimycobacterial metabolites from Plectranthus: royleanone derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains20397225
Plant-derived terpenesInduction of fatty acid composition modifications and tolerance to biocides in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by plant-derived terpenes. To enhance food safety and stability, the food industry tends to use natural antimicrobials such as plant-derived compounds as an attractive alternative to chemical preservatives.21131520
Ethanolic extracts of Canadian botanicals (Arctostaphylos uva ursi (kinnikinnick or bearberry), Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Prunus serotina (black cherry), and Rhodiola rosea (roseroot))Extracts of Arctostaphylos uva ursi (kinnikinnick or bearberry), Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Prunus serotina (black cherry), and Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) inhibited the growth of all Ng isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 32 micro g/mL, 4 to 32 micro g/mL, 16 to >32 micro g/mL, and 32 to 64 micro g/mL, respectively.Extracts of Canadian first nations medicinal plants, used as natural products, inhibit neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with different antibiotic resistance profiles.21301385
Capparis spinosaAt 2 mg/mL, this extract inhibited the biofilm formation to 79, 75, 73, 70% and EPS production to 58, 46, 66 and 67% in S. marcescens, PAO1, E. coli and P. mirabilis, respectivelyAntiquorum sensing and antibiofilm potential of Capparis spinosa.22222491
Curtisia dentataActivity against Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter spp., ethanol root bark extracts consistently showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (62.43%), total phenol content (TPH) (57.62 26 mg GAE/g) and reducing power (RP) (41.32%), followed by those of the stem bark and leaf extracts with the respective values of 54.68%, 37.77 mg GAE/g and 21.83%.CONCLUSION: Curtisia dentata is a very effective source of antioxidant and a possible alternative to sourcing antiverotoxic antibiotics with novel mechanism of action.22504170
Aframomum melegueta seed extract (diketone 6-gingerdione (2) and its enolic tautomers, methyl-6-gingerol (5) and rac-6-dihydroparadol (7), 6-Paradol (3), 8-gingerol (6),)moderate to weak antimycobacterial activities, and the best modulators induced a 4- to 16-fold decrease of the MICs of EtBr and rifampicin as well as a reduction of the MIC of isoniazidPutative mycobacterial efflux inhibitors from the seeds of Aframomum melegueta22789014
Alpha-MangostinMost potent among them against Gram-positive pathogens (MIC=0.78-1.56 ?g/mL)Rapid bactericidal action of alpha-mangostin against MRSA as an outcome of membrane targeting22982495
Medihoney and rifampicinMethylglyoxal (MGO), believed to be the major antibacterial compound in manuka honey, did not act synergistically with rifampicin and is therefore not the sole factor responsible for the synergistic effect of manuka honey with rifampicin.Our findings support the idea that a combination of honey and antibiotics may be an effective new antimicrobial therapy for chronic wound infections23469049
Oregano essential oilInhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains with different patters of resistanceCONCLUSIONS: The obtained outcomes will enable further investigations using oregano essential oil obtained from Origanum heracleoticum L. as alternative antibacterial remedies enhancing healing process in bacterial infections and as an effective means for the prevention of antibiotic-resistant strain development.23484421
Tea tree oil (TTO) and silver ions (Ag(+) )Antimicrobial efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans\The activity of alternative antimicrobial agents such as tea tree oil (TTO) and silver ions (Ag(+) ) with multiple target sites impedes the development of antibacterial resistance and might be useful in improving the current treatment strategies for various chronic wound infections.23581401
Vitex negundo leaf extract (Water and methanol)Methanol extract had MIC: 200-3200 ?g/mL and MBC, 200-400 ?g/mLIn vitro and in vivo bactericidal activity of Vitex negundo leaf extract against diverse multidrug resistant enteric bacterial pathogens23608373
Ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebulaThe potent compound norwogoninhad a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 microg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 microg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumanniiIsolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii23630600
Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka) oilInhibitor of S. pseudintermedius biofilm formation, and the majority of bacteria decreased by >50%In vitro efficacy of the essential oil from Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) on antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs23772881
Propolis extract GH2002MICs in the range of 0.03 to 2 mg/ml against S. pyogenes, S. aureus, E. faecium and Candida. These results suggest that the special propolis extract GH2002 might be used in the development of alternative products for therapy of microbial infections.24020127
Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) stem bark aqueous extractsThe minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extract against the isolates ranged from 600-800 ?g/ml.The extract did not exhibit cytotoxic activity against Vero cells even at the concentration of 4 mg/ml.CONCLUSION: Our results offer a scientific basis for the traditional use of T. alternifolia in the treatment of skin infections, showing that the plant extract has an enormous potential as a prospective alternative therapy against MRSA skin infections.24066905
Amphypterygium adstringens anacardic acid mixtureanti-quorum sensing activity in P. aeruginosa 94% of inhibition violecin production at 166 micro g/mL, 86% inhibition of pyocyanin at 200 micro g/mL) and 91% inhibition of rhamnolipid production 500 micro g/mL) and decrease the elastase (75% at 500 ?g/mL) activityThe aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) potential of an anacardic acids mixture isolated from Amphipterygium adstringens, a medicinal plant known as "cuachalalate", to prevent the onset of bacterial infections as an alternate to antibiotics.24126126
essential oils from the leaves of L. gracilis (EOLG)has 38 chemical constituents with thymol (44.4%), carvacrol (22.2%), p-cymene (6.2%) and ?-pinene (5.6%) as major constituents.These results demonstrate that natural substances present in EOLG have the capacity to modulate bacterial resistance and can be used as an adjuvant therapy against multi-resistant microorganisms such as S. aureus, Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa.24479735
Aloe vera inner gelThe inhibitory concentrations of A. vera inner gel were ranging from 6.25 to 800 mg ml(-1) .50% of the detected strains (14 clinical strains and one reference strain of H. pylori), independently of their susceptibility profile, were inhibited in their growth at 100 mg ml(-1) .NAThe study demonstrates that the Aloe vera inner gel expresses antibacterial properties against both susceptible and resistant Helicobacter pylori strains.24597562
Flavonoids [demethylglycyrol (31) and 5,7-di-O-methylluteone (32)] and licorice phenolics [3-arylcoumarins such as licoarylcoumarin (9) and glycycoumarin (26), and 2-arylcoumarones such as gancaonin I (17)]Activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus speciesStructures of two new flavonoids and effects of licorice phenolics on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species24686577
Aspergillomarasmine A (AMA)potent inhibitor of the NDM-1 enzyme and another clinically relevant MBL, VIM-2 etcHere we have identified a fungal natural product, aspergillomarasmine A (AMA), that is a rapid and potent inhibitor of the NDM-1 enzyme and another clinically relevant MBL, VIM-2.24965651
Different extracts from Olea europaea, mastic gum, and Inula viscosaActivity against bacteria and fungi, O. europaea presented MIC and MBC ranges of 0.07-10.00 mg mL(-1) and 0.60-10.00 mg mL(-1), respectively, mean MBC values for mastic gum and I. viscosa were 0.07-10.00 mg mL(-1) and 0.15-10.00 mg mL(-1), respectivelyEthyl acetate I. viscosa extract and total mastic extract showed considerable antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms and could therefore be considered as alternative natural anti-infectious agents.25054150
Essential oil was extracted from leaves of Hyptis martiusii Benth. ? -3-carene, 1, 8-cineole, trans-caryophyllene, Cariophyllene oxide and bicyclogermacrene were important components.Essential oil inhibited growth of bcteria (MIC < 512 ?g/mL) except S. aureus (SA358) multidrug resistant (MRSA) by direct contact. S. aureus ATCC 12692, S. aureus 358 (SA358),Bacillus cereus ATCC, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli 27 (EC27), P. aeruginosa (ATCC).NACONCLUSIONS: These results show that this oil influences the activity of the antibiotic and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.25237640
(-)-Epigallocatehin-3-Gallate (EGCG) and Green Tea Extracts (GTE)EGCG inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa at a MIC level of 200~400 ?g/ml. The MIC of GTE was a 1 : 16 dilution for P. aeruginosa. EGCG showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli at a MIC of 400 ?g/ml. In the case of GTE, the MIC was a dilution between 1:8 and 1:4 for E. coli.CONCLUSION: EGCG and GTE showed potential as alternative or adjunct topical antimicrobial agents for infections that are resistant to traditional antibiotic therapy.25324647
Vanilla, patchouli and ylang ylang essential oils stabilized by iron oxide@C14 nanostructuresVanilla essential oil loaded nanoparticles pelliculised on the catheter samples surface strongly inhibited both the initial adherence of S. aureus cells (quantified at 24 h) and the development of the mature biofilm quantified at 48 h. Patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils inhibited mostly the initial adherence phase of S. aureus biofilm development. In the case of K. pneumoniae, all tested nanosystems exhibited similar efficiency, being active mostly against the adherence K. pneumoniae cells to the tested catheter specimens.Efficiency of vanilla, patchouli and ylang ylang essential oils stabilized by iron oxide@C14 nanostructures against bacterial adherence and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains.25375335
CoumarinQuorum sensing inhibitor, active against short, medium and long chain N-acyl-homoserine lactones and also inhibited biofilmIn this study, we identified coumarin, a natural plant phenolic compound, as a novel QS inhibitor, with potent anti-virulence activity in a broad spectrum of pathogens.25672848
Organic extracts from Indigofera suffruticosa leaves (diethyl ether, chloroform and acetone)The acetone extract was the most potent inhibitor of S. aureus (MIC and MBC of 0.78 and 3.12 mg/mL), followed by the chloroform extract (MIC and MBC of 3.12 and 6.25 mg/mL).Organic extracts from Indigofera suffruticosa leaves have antimicrobial and synergic actions with erythromycin against Staphylococcus aureus25699022
6, 6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine from Nuphar japonicumMIC was 1-4 ?g/mL against various MRSA and VRE strains, also inhibited DNA topoisomerase IV (IC50 was 10-15 ?M)These results suggest that 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine may be a potent candidate or seed for novel antibacterial agents.25731981
Cranberry proanthocyanidinThe minimal concentration at which significant inhibitiont occurred was 250 ?g/mL.CONCLUSION: Cranberry proanthocyanidins exhibit potent effects on growth, adhesion, and virulence of oropharyngeal and lung isolates of E. coli, suggesting that cranberry proanthocyanidin could be of clinical interest to reduce oropharyngeal colonization and prevent lung infection.25803655
Essential oils (EOs) from Salvia fruticosa, Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclareaInhibition the Tet(K) efflux pump of tetracycline resistant Staphylococcus epidermidisOur data from molecular and functional analyses of inhibitory effect of Salvia's essential oils, namely from S. fruticosa, on Tet(K) pump of Staphylococcus epidermidis and from modulatory studies may be the starting point for consecutive study of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters and their perspective use in combination therapy.25846244
Pomegranate fruit constituents: caffeic acid, ellagic acid, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and quercetinThe peel extracts exhibited greater antimycobacterial activity (MIC 64-1024 ?g/mL) than the potable juice (MIC 256 - > 1024 ?g/mL). EGCG and quercetin exhibited higher antitubercular (MIC 32-256 ?g/mL) and antibacterial (MIC 64-56 ?g/mL) potencies than caffeic acid and ellagic acid (MIC 64-512 ?g/mL).Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate fruit constituents against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. CONTEXT: The global surge in multi-drug resistant bacteria and the imminence of tuberculosis pandemic necessitate alternative therapeutic approaches to augment the existing medications.25858784
Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) extractDespite having no significant antimicrobial activity (MIC ? 1000 ?g mL(-1)), the extract showed additive activity to the antibiotic efficacy, significantly reducing its MIC.These results suggest that N. corniger and its nest are promising natural products for use in antimicrobial therapy.26150745
Pectinatella magnifica extract (acetone, methanol )acetone extract had (MIC) 0.004-0.350 mg/mL and MBC 0.007-0.500 mg/mL), while methanol extract had (MIC 0.03-0.12 mg/mL and MFC 0.06-0.25 mg/mL)According to the experimental data obtained, P. magnifica methanol extract may be considered as a good resource of novel natural products with potent antibiofilm activity against the bacterium well known for its resistance.26252786
Chebulinic acid (CA)M. tuberculosis DNA gyrase inhibitorIdentification of chebulinic acid as potent natural inhibitor of M. tuberculosis DNA gyrase and molecular insights into its binding mode of action.26410242
Crude ethanolic extract (CEE), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and methanolic fraction (MF) from Anacardium microcarpumHowever, addition of CEE, EAF, and MF to the growth medium at the subinhibitory concentration (MIC/8=64 ?g/mL) significantly modulated amikacin- and gentamicin-resistant E. coliA. microcarpum is a natural resource with resistance-modifying antibacterial activity that needs to be further investigated to overcome the present resistant-infection problem.26604695
Piper betle L.This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-?-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19 micro g/ml to 1250 micro g/ml.Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance. Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent.26741962
Kisameet ClayAntimicrobial activity against ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species)Here, we report the broad-spectrum and potent antibacterial activity of Kisameet clay, a natural clay mineral from British Columbia, Canada, against a group of multidrug-resistant ESKAPE strains.26814180
Poncirus trifoliata ethyl extractStrong anti-MRSA activity, antibacterial activity with MIC value of 256 micro g ml(-1)Studies on antimicrobial activity of Poncirus trifoliata ethyl extract fraction against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and to elucidate its antibacterial mechanism.26930870
Epigallocatachin gallate (EGCG)E. coli LB226692, serotype O104:H4, O104:H4 strain 55989, EDL933, serotype O157:H7, matrix production of all strains was virtually eliminated by EGCG or green tea at 28?C and 37?CNAThese findings highlight EGCG as a potential adjuvant for antibiotic therapy of biofilm-associated infections.26992034
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ginger extract for evaluated strains were 40, 40, 20, 20, 20, 20, 10, and 5 mg/mL for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter baumannii, C. albicans, and C. krusei, respectively.Ginger extract has good antifungal and antibiofilm formation by fungi against C. albicans and C. Krusei.27127591
Petroleum ether extract of seed of Nigella sativa, oil extract from mature ripe fruit husk of Aframomum corrorima and mature unripe fruit of A. corrorimaPetroleum ether extract of seed of Nigella sativa: Bacillus cereus [inhibition zone (IZ), 44 ? 0.31 mm] and B. cereus ATCC 10987 (IZ, 40 ? 2.33 mm); oil extract from mature ripe fruit husk of Aframomum corrorima and mature unripe fruit of A. corrorima revealed promising activities against Candida albicans ATCC 90028 (IZ, 35 ? 1.52 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus DSM 346 (IZ, 25 ? 1.32 mm), respectively.Antimicrobial and anti-Quorum Sensing activities of selected medicinal plants of Ethiopia: Implication for development of potent antimicrobial agents. BACKGROUND: Traditional medicinal plants have been used as an alternative medicine in many parts of the world, including Ethiopia.27400878
Ludwigia leptocarpa extracts ( 2?-hydroxyoleanolic acid, (2R,3S,2''S)-3''',4',4''',5,5'',7,7''-heptahydroxy-3,8"-biflavanone, and luteolin-8-C-glucoside)Active against Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative multi-drug-resistant bacteria, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri (a cause of shigellosisOverall, the present results show that L. leptocarpa has the potential to be a natural source of anti-diarrheal and antioxidant products, so further investigation is warranted.27431270
Monoterpenes nerolInhibit NorA efflux pump of multi-drug resistant S. aureus strainsThis result shows that bioactives tested, especially the nerol, are able to inhibit NorA efflux pump indicating a potential use as adjuvants of norfloxacin for therapy of infections caused by multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains.27565089
Tordylium persicum Boiss. & Hausskn extractThe results showed that Streptococcus pyogenes was the most susceptible to the methanolic extract (MIC = 25.9 ? 0.0 ?g/mL), while Proteus vulgaris was the most resistant strain (MIC = 295.3 ? 0.0 ?g/mL) among all bacteria evaluated.?Tordylium persicum Boiss. & Hausskn extract: A possible alternative for treatment of pediatric infectious diseases. Antimicrobial herbal compounds are one of the important medical resources, and in order to help alleviate the spread of the pediatric infectious diseases, identification of additional bioactive phytochemicals and herbal extracts will be practical in treating illnesses.27585257
AN(Acacia nilotica) + MKL Sprengel (Murraya koenigii (Linn.)) + Euca (Eucalyptus) + PS (Psidium guajava), AN + MKL Sprengel + EucaAll the triple and quadruple combinations of the plant extracts offered antimicrobial benefits either superior or comparable to 0.2% chlorhexidine against S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius.Antimicrobial efficacy of the combinations of Acacia nilotica,Murrayakoenigii (Linn.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus, and Psidiumguajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro study. BACKGROUND: The rise in disease incidence, increased resistance of pathogenic bacteria to currently used antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals, and financial considerations in developing countries necessitates alternate preventive and treatment strategies for oral diseases.27723640
Ethanolic extract of propolisCombinations of cefixime and propolis gave significant resultsPropolis acted synergistically with cefixime and enhanced the efficacy of antibiotic and reduced its effective dose in combined therapy.27887651
Pistacia atlantica methanolic extractActive aginst Helicobacter pyloriThe assay demonstrated the thiourea and the extract to be potent urease inhibitors, with the extract having strong bacteriostatic activity against clinical isolates of H. pylori, including such with antibiotic resistance.27923651
Combination of Oleoresin from Copaifera multijuga Hayne and Biogenic Silver NanoparticlesBactericidal activity against planktonic Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus - GBS) CONCLUSION: These results indicate the potential of copaiba oil, alone or in combination with AgNPbio, for the development of new alternative strategies for controlling GBS infections.27978809
Cassia alata50% inhibition of violacein production in C. violaceum at 0?05 mg ml-1 concentration of fraction rich in flavonoids (F-AF)A medicinal herb Cassia alata attenuates quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.28035685
Combretum zeyheri alkaloid extractsantimycobacterial effects with an MIC value of 125 microg/mlAlkaloid extracts from the most potent plant species, Combretum zeyheri were further investigated for time-kill dependency effects on drug transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis.28228097
Nigella Sativa extractIn conclusion, our literature survey revealed potent antimicrobial properties of N. sativa against MDR strains in vitro that should be further investigated in order to develop novel therapeutic perspectives for combating infectious diseases particularly caused by MDR strains.28386474
Marine sponge extractsMIC values of the sponge extracts ranged from 0.039 to 1.25mg/mL, best antibacterial profile was observed by its ethyl acetate extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus with MIC and MBC values of 0.039mg/mL and 0.078mg/mL, respectively. These findings suggest that the antibacterial properties of the tested marine sponge extracts may provide an alternative and complementary strategy to manage bacterial infections.28392375
Methanolic fruit extract of S. persica L.Methanolic fruit extract of S. persica L. showed a high degree of anti-biofilm formation on PMMA (polymethylmetacrylate) and on violacein (pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum) inhibition with a percentage of reduction equal to 90% when MIC value (20 mg/ml) was used.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiquorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibiofilm potential of Salvadora persica L. methanolic extracts to prevent the infections due to Staphylococcus as an alternate to antibiotics.28552808
Puupehenone-like molecules, marine natural productActive against dormant MtbIn conclusion, we have identified and characterized antimycobacterial compounds from marine organisms with novel activity profiles which appear to target M. tuberculosis pathways that are conditionally essential for dormancy survival.28607021
Phenolic Compounds: tannic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, rutin, and eugenolLong-term treatment with several conventional antibiotics can cause harmful side effectsPhenolic Compounds in Antimicrobial Therapy. Long-term treatment with several conventional antibiotics can cause harmful side effects that can be alleviated by antioxidant therapy.28661772
Extract of A. deliciosaActivity against Acinetobacter baumanniiTherefore, it can be concluded that polar extract of A.?deliciosa can be used to find suitable alternative therapeutic to control biofilm formation by carbapenem resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii.28705748
Naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dioneMinimum inhibitory concentration of N12D against MRSA was 4.9-9.8?MNaphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione is a potent anti-MRSA agent against planktonic, biofilm and intracellular bacteria. AIM: Naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione (N12D) and naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (N23D) are furanonaphthoquinone derivatives from natural resources.28799789
Plectranthus amboinicus essential oil (PAEO)The lowest MIC (0.25 mg mL-1) and MBC (0.5 mg mL-1) values were observed when carvacrol was used against OVRSA. When a 0.5 mg mL-1?concentration of PAEO and carvacrol was used, no viable cells were found on S. aureus biofilm.Plectranthus amboinicus essential oil and carvacrol bioactive against planktonic and biofilm of oxacillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a worldwide concern and in order to find an alternative to this problem, the occurrence of antimicrobial compounds in Plectranthus amboinicus essential oil was investigated.28915875
Fennel essential oilActivity in combination with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus strainsOur research showed that the fennel essential oil in combination with mupirocin may be considered as a natural alternative in eradication of S. aureus with iMLSB, cMLSB, MSB resistant phenotypes and is able to decrease the growth rate of antibiotic resistance.28917968
Manuka honeyMIC and MBC against K. pneumoniae ST11 of Manuka honey was 30% (v/v) and (>1 log) reduction was observed in mice.CONCLUSION: Manuka honey can be used as an alternate therapeutic approach for management of New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-producing pathogens.29226698
Origanum onites essential oil (EO) Activity against ESBL positive E. coli isolates.According to our results, O. onites EO may be an alternative to synthetic drug, used in combination with other antibiotics for treatment of infection caused by multidrug resistant bacteria after testing toxic effects and irritation at preferred doses on human.29262709
Apple fruit juiceAntimicrobial effect against Enterococcus fecalis and Streptococcus mutansHowever, preclinical and clinical trials are needed to evaluate biocompatibility & safety before apple can conclusively be recommended in endodontic therapy, but in vitro observation of apple effectiveness appears promising.29284967
Passiflora cincinnata MastEnhances antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus?and?Escherichia coliPotentiation of antibiotic activity by Passiflora cincinnata Mast. front of strains Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The development of new drugs from plants is an interesting alternative approach to overcoming microbial resistance.29379354
MCFA lauric acidInhibitor of?Clostridium difficile?Growth?in VitroOur combined results suggest that the naturally occurring MCFA lauric acid is a novel C. difficile inhibitor and is useful in the development of an alternative or adjunctive treatment for CDI.29387044
Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) rhizomesTested against Escherichia coli strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus spThe results indicated that the ethanolic extract and essential oil of C. longa rhizomes have active compounds with antibacterial properties that could be used in future research as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of infections caused by nosocomial pathogens.29462537
Melipona beecheii honey (Cuba)Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cellsThe antibiofilm activity of honeys was tested by assessing their ability to inhibit biofilm formation and to disrupt preformed biofilms.29988499
Phytochemical flavanones: 2',4'- or 2',6'-dihydroxylation of the B ring and 5,7-dihydroxylation of the A ring in the flavanone structureDifferently substituted flavanones were isolated from Leguminosae.The present hydroxyflavanones would be useful in the phytotherapeutic strategy against MRSA infections.8778504
Mycobacteriolytic preparation (stazyme) from the Staphylococcus strain ClavelisStazyme, a mycobacteriolytic preparation from a Staphylococcus strain, is able to break the permeability barrier in multiple drug resistant Mycobacterium avium. As a strategy to augment the potential of existing drugs against Mycobacterium avium we investigated a mycobacteriolytic preparation (stazyme) from the Staphylococcus strain Clavelis, which results in significant mycobacterial growth inhibition.9537755
Hot aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from six plants (Terminallia chebula, Terminallia bellerica, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Lawsonia alba and Mikania micrantha)Antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 and Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts18404337
Abrus precatorius extracts from leaves, stem and the seed oilAt the different concentrations of the extracts used (512 microg/ml - 4 microg/ml), Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive organism with an MIC of 8 ug/ml for the leaf extractThe in-vitro antimicrobial activity of Abrus precatorius (L) fabaceae extract on some clinical pathogens18408781
Artemisia douglasiana extract and its active compound, dehydroleucodine.The results showed that both dehydroleucodine and Artemisia douglasiana extract had activity against the microorganism with MICs between 1-8 and 60-120 mg/L, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Artemisia douglasiana may be a useful alternative treatment strategy principally in eradication of metronidazole and clarithromycin-resistant strain.19422904
Polyphenol-rich extracts from NS (Natural almond skins)MIC (50-90) 64 - 128 microg/mLNACONCLUSIONS: Polyphenols from almond skins were effective in vitro against H. pylori, irrespective of genotype status and could therefore be used in combination with antibiotics as a novel strategy for antibiotic resistance.23659287
essential oils and extracts of medicinal and culinary herbs (coriander, lemon balm and spearmint leaves)Antibacterial activity against Esherichia coliRESULTS: Most of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity in all three assays, however peppermint, lemon balm and coriander seed oils were most potent, with peppermint and coriander seed oils being more potent than the antibiotic rifaximin in the disc diffusion assay.24283351
Grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignongrape pomace extract combined with ?-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains. (MIC) was reduced 4 to 75 times. quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively.It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 micro g/mL of extract and 0.6-375 micro g/mL antibiotics)Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria.28235054